Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal


Khvatov I.A. The main directions of evolution of the psyche in the context of ontological and differential-integrative approaches. Part 2

Full text in Russian: Хватов И.А. Главные направления эволюции психики в контексте онтологического и дифференционно-интеграционного подходов. Часть 2
Moscow University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia

About author
Suggested citation

The article is devoted to the development of A.N.Leontiev's classical periodization of phylogeny of the psyche in the context of modern scientific data on psychical and morpho-physiological organization of different groups of living organisms. The following thesis is substantiated: at the present stage of scientific development the continuous division of the evolution of the psyche into several stages and levels does not reflect the specificity of the process. Based on A.N.Severtsov's theory we distinguish the main directions of evolution of the psyche: aromorphosis, idioadaptation, degeneration. In the second part of the article major idioadaptation and degenerative lines of the evolution of the psyche are analyzed. It is shown that even within the same stage of development, there are significant qualitative differences in the psychic organization of individual taxonomic groups due to the specifics of the evolutionary path of a taxon. It is concluded that these differences should be reflected in the current periodization of the phylogeny of the psyche.

Keywords: evolution of the psyche, phylogeny, aromorphosis, idioadaptation, degeneration, protista, animals


Cyrillic letters are transliterated according to BSI standards. The titles are given in author’s translation.

Aleshin V.V., Petrov N.B. The regression in the evolution of multicellular animals. Priroda, 2001, No. 7, 62–70. (in Russian)

Armus H.L., Montgomery A.R., Jellison J.L. Discrimination learning in Paramecia (P. caudatum). The Psychological Record, 2006, 56(4), 489–498.

Barabanshchikov V.A. Perception and the event. St. Petersburg: Aleteiya, 2002. (in Russian)

Bell W.J., Adiyodi K.G. (Eds.). The American cockroach. London; New York: Chapman and Hall, 1982.

Chittka L., Niven J. Are bigger brains better? Current Biology, 2009, 19(21), R995-R1008. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.08.023

Dacke M., Srinivasan M.V. Evidence for counting in insects. Animal Cognition, 2008, 11(4), 683–689. doi:10.1007/s10071-008-0159-y

Dorosheva E.A., Reznikova Zh.I. How predatory carabid beetles learn to avoid conflicts with red wood ants: catalogue learning hypothesis. Evraziatskii entomologicheskii zhurnal, 2011, No. 10(1),105–111.

Dunn C.W., Hejnol A., Matus D.Q., Pang K., Browne W.E., Smith S.A., Seaver E., Rouse G.W., Obst M., Edgecombe G.D., Sørensen M.V., Haddock S.H.D., Schmidt-Rhaesa A., Okusu A., Kristensen R.M., Wheeler W.C., Martindale M.Q., Giribet G. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature, 2008, 452(7188), 745–749. doi:10.1038/nature06614

Dyer A.G., Neumeyer C., Chittka L.Honeybee (Apis mellifera) vision can discriminate between and recognise images of human faces. Journal of Experimental Biology, 2005, 208(24), 4709–4714. doi:10.1242/jeb.01929

Fabri K.E. Fundamentals of zoopsychology. 3rd ed. Moscow: Psikhologiya, 2004. (in Russian)

Filippova G.G. Zoopsychology and comparative psychology. Moscow: Akademiya, 2004. (in Russian)

Finn J.K., Tregenza T., Norman M.D. Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus. Current Biology, 2009, 19(23), R1069-R1070. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.052

Fiorito G., Von Planta C., Scotto P. Problem solving ability of Octopus vulgaris lamarck (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Behavioral and Neural Biology, 1990, 53(2), 217–230. doi:10.1016/0163-1047(90)90441-8

Frisch K. Aus dem Leben der Bienen. Moscow: Mir, 1980. (in Russian)

Garcia L., Saraiva Garcia C., Karen Calbria L., Costa Nunes da Cruz G., Snchez Puentes A., Bo S.N., Fontes W., Ricart C.A.O., Salmen Espindola F., Valle de Sousa M. Proteomic analysis of honey bee brain upon ontogenetic and behavioral development. Journal of Proteome Research, 200, 8(3), 1464–1473. doi:10.1021/pr800823r

Gelber B. Retention in Paramecium Aurelia. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1958, 51(1), 110–115. doi:10.1037/h0049093

Gelber B.Reminiscence and the trend of retention in Paramecium Aurelia. The Psychological Record, 1962, 12, 179–192.

Grabovskii V.I. Language in ants in works by Zh.I.Reznikova and B.Ya.Ryabko – myth or reality? Etologiya i zoopsikhologiya, 2010, No. 2. (in Russian)

Grüter C., Balbuena M.S., Farina W.M. Informational conflicts created by the waggle dance. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2008, 275(1640), 1321–1327. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0186

Hanlon R.T., Messenger J. Cephalopod behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Hanzel T.E., Rucker W.B. Escape training in paramecia. Journal of Biological Psychology, 1971, 13(2), 24–28.

Helms Cahan S., Fewell J. Division of labor and the evolution of task sharing in queen associations of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2004, 56(1), 9–17. doi:10.1007/s00265-003-0746-5

Hennessey T.M., Rucker W.B., McDiarmid C.G. Classical conditioning in paramecia. Animal Learning and Behavior, 1979, 7(4), 417–423.

Hochner B., Shomrat T., Fiorito G. The octopus: a model for a comparative analysis of the evolution of learning and memory mechanisms. Biological Bulletin, 2006, 210(3), 308–317.

Holbrook C.T., Clark R.M., Jeanson R., Bertram S.M., Kukuk P.F., Fewell J.H. Emergence and consequences of division of labor in associations of normally solitary sweat bees. Ethology, 2009, 115(4), 301–310. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2009.01617.x

Huber J.C., Rucker W.B., McDiarmid C.G. Retention of escape training and activity changes in single paramecia. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974, 86(2), 258–266.

Jeanson R., Clark R., Holbrook C., Bertram S., Fewell J., Kukuk P. Division of labour and socially induced changes in response thresholds in associations of solitary halictine bees. Animal Behaviour, 2008, 76(3), 593–602. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.04.007

Jeanson R., Fewell J.H. Influence of the social context on division of labor in ant foundress associations. Behavioral Ecology, 2008, 19(3), 567–574. doi:10.1093/beheco/arn018

Karpov E.V. Metasystem approach as the means of psychological research. In: System organization and determination of the psyche. Moscow: IP RAN, 2008. pp. 27–51. (in Russian)

Kholodnaya M.A. [Preface]. In: Chuprikova N.I. Mental development: The principle of differentiation. St. Petersburg: Piter, 2007. pp. 8–10. (in Russian)

Khvatov I.A. Features of self-reflection in animals at different stages phylogeny. PhD dissertation. Moscow University for the Humanities, Moscow, 2010. (in Russian)

Khvatov I.A. A.N.Leontiev’s concept оf the origin of the psyche at the present stage of science development. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2011a, No. 1(15), 1. (in Russian)

Khvatov I.A. Specifics of self-reflection in Periplaneta Americana. Eksperimental'naya psikhologiya, 2011b. No. 1, 28–40. (in Russian)

Leontiev A.N. Problems of the development of the psyche. 3rd ed. Moscow: Mosk. gos. univ., 1972. (in Russian)

Malakhov V.V. The main stages of the evolution of the eukaryotic organisms. Paleontologicheskii zhurnal, 2003, No. 6, 25–32. (in Russian)

Malakhov V.V. Vestimentifera as autotrophic animals. Sorosovskii obrazovatel'nyi zhurnal, 1997, No. 9, 18–26. (in Russian)

Malakhov V.V. Mysterious groups of marine invertebrates. Moscow: Mosk. gos. univ., 1990. (in Russian)

Mather J.A. Interactions of juvenile Octopus vulgaris with scavenging and territorial fishes. Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 1992, (19)3, 175–182. doi:10.1080/10236249209378806

Mather J.A. ‘Home’ choice and modification by juvenile Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda): specialized intelligence and tool use? Journal of Zoology, 1994, (233)3, 359–368. doi:10.1111/j.1469–7998.1994.tb05270.x

Mather J.A., Anderson R.C. Personalities of Octopuses (Octopus rubescens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1993, 107(3), 336–340.

Mather J.A., Anderson R.C. Exploration, play, and habituation in Octopuses (Octopus dofleini). Journal of Comparative Psychology. 1999, (113)3, 333–338.

Mazokhin-Porshnyakov G.A. Generalization of visual stimuli as an example of solving abstract problems by bees. Zoologicheskii zhurnal, 1969, 48, 1125–1136. (in Russian)

Mazokhin-Porshnyakov G.A. Learnability of insects and their ability to generalize of visual stimuli. Entomologicheskii obzor, 1968, 47, 362–379. (in Russian)

Menzel R., Giurfa M. Cognitive architecture of a mini-brain: the honeybee. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2001, (5)2, 62–71. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(00)0160-6

Nussbaumer A.D., Fisher C.R., Bright M. Horizontal endosymbiont transmission in hydrothermal vent tubeworms. Nature, 2006, 441(7091), 345–348. doi:10.1038/nature04793

Okshtein I.L. On the biology of Trichoplax sp. (Placozoa). Zoologicheskii zhurnal, 1987, 66(3), 339–347. (in Russian)

Panov E.N. Signs, symbols, languages​​: Communication in the animal kingdom and in the human world. Moscow: LKI, 2011. (in Russian)

Ponomarev Ya.A. The psyche and the intuition. Moscow: ARIS, 2010. (in Russian)

Ravary F., Lecoutey E., Kaminski G., Châline N., Jaisson P. Individual experience alone can generate lasting division of labor in ants. Current Biology, 2007, (17)15, 1308–1312. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.06.047

Reznikova Zh.I., Novgorodova T.A. Division of labour and exchange of information within ant settlements. Uspekhi sovremennoi biologii, 1998, 118(3), 345–356. (in Russian)

Reznikova Zh.I., Ryabko B.Ya. Experimental evidence of the use of numerals in the language of ants. Problemy peredachi informatsii, 1988a, 24(4), 97–101. (in Russian)

Reznikova Zh.I., Ryabko B.Ya. The language of ants and the Information theory. Priroda, 1988b, No. 6, 64–71. (in Russian)

Reznikova Zh.I., Ryabko B.Ya. Theoretical and informational analisis of ant “language”. Zhurnal obshchei biologii, 1990, 51(5), 601–609. (in Russian)

Reznikova Zh.I., Ryabko B.Ya. Using ideas and methods of information theory to study the plasticity of the language of ants and their ability to addition and subtraction of small numbers. Problemy peredachi informatsii, 1995a, 31(4), 100–108. (in Russian)

Reznikova Zh.I., Ryabko B.Ya. Transmission of information on quantitative characteristics of an object in ants. Zhurnal vysshei nervnoi deyatel'nosti, 1995b, 45(3), 500–509. (in Russian)

Riley J.R., Greggers U., Smith A.D., Reynolds D.R., Menzel R. The flight paths of honeybees recruited by the waggle dance. Nature, 2005, 435(7039), 205–207. doi:10.1038/nature03526

Robinson E.J.H., Feinerman O., Franks N.R. Flexible task allocation and the organization of work in ants. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2009a, 276(1677), 4373–4380. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1244

Robinson E.J.H., Smith F.D., Sullivan K.M.E., Franks N.R. Do ants make direct comparisons? Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2009b, 276(1667), 2635–2641. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0350

Rouse G.W., Goffredi S.K., Vrijenhoek R.C. Osedax: bone-eating marine worms with dwarf males. Science, 2004, 305(5684), 668–671. doi:10.1126/science.1098650

Ruiz-Trillo I., Paps J., Loukota M., Ribera C., Jondelius U., Baguñà J., Riutort M. A phylogenetic analysis of myosin heavy chain type II sequences corroborates that Acoela and Nemertodermatida are basal bilaterians. PNAS, 2002, 99(17), 11246–11251. doi:10.1073/pnas.172390199

Ruppert E.E., Fox R.S., Barnes R.D. Onvertebrate zoology. Moscow: Akademiya, 2008. Vol. 1–4. (in Russian)

Savel'ev S.V. The origin of the brain. Moscow: Vedi, 2005. (in Russian)

Semmler H., Bailly X., Wanninger A. Myogenesis in the basal bilaterian Symsagittifera roscoffensis (Acoela). Frontiers in Zoology, 2008, 5(1), 14. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-5-14

Seravin L.N., Frolov A.O. Metabolistic movement as a form of cell movement. Tsitologiya, 1983, 25(12), 1343–1352. (in Russian)

Seravin L.N., Gudkov A.V. Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa) – one of the most primitive multicellular animals. St. Petersburg: TESSA, 2005. (in Russian)

Severtsov A.N. The main directions of the evolutionary process. Moscow: Mosk. gos. univ., 1967. (in Russian)

Severtsov A.S. Mechanism of the origin and evolutionary significance of the heterochronies. Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR. Ser. biologicheskaya, 1978, No. 4, 526–534. (in Russian)

Severtsov A.S. The theory of evolution. Moscow: VLADOS, 2005. (in Russian)

Sharova I.Kh. Invertebrate zoology. Moscow: VLADOS, 2002. (in Russian)

Sotskaya M.A. Zoopsychology and comparative psychology. Moscow: IDO RUDN, 2005. (in Russian)

Srivastava M., Begovic E., Chapman J., Putnam N.H., Hellsten U., Kawashima T., Kuo A., Mitros T., Salamov A., Carpenter M.L., Signorovitch A.Y., Moreno M.A., Kamm K., Grimwood J., Schmutz J., Shapiro H., Grigoriev I.V., Buss L.W., Schierwater B., Dellaporta S.L., Rokhsa D.S. The Trichoplax genome and the nature of placozoans. Nature, 2008, 454(7207), 955–960 doi:10.1038/nature07191

Sumbre G., Fiorito G., Flash T., Hochner B. Neurobiology: Motor control of flexible octopus arms. Nature, 2005, 433(7026), 595–596. doi:10.1038/433595a

Sumbre G., Fiorito G., Flash T., Hochner B. Octopuses use a human-like strategy to control precise point-to-point arm movements. Current Biology, 2006, 16(8), 767–772. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.02.069

Tushmalova N.A. The basic patterns of evolution of behavior of invertebrates. In: Physiology of behavior. Neurobiological regularities. Leningrad: Nauka, 1987. pp. 236–265. (in Russian)

Vagner V.A. The origin and development of psychic abilities. Vol. 2. Nervous pre-psychic life. Leningrad: Nachatki znanii, 1925. (in Russian)

Wenner A.M., Wells P.H. Anatomy of a controversy. The question of “language” among bees. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1990.

Woyke T., Teeling H., Ivanova N.I., Huntemann M., Richter M., Gloeckner F.O., Boffelli D., Anderson I.J., Barry K.W., Shapiro H.J., Szeto E., Kyrpides N.C., Mussmann M., Amann R., Bergin C., Ruehland C., Rubin E.M., Dubilier N. Symbiosis insights through metagenomic analysis of a microbial consortium. Nature, 2006, 443, 950–955. doi:10.1038/nature05192

Zullo L., Sumbre G., Agnisola C., Flash T., Hochner B. Nonsomatotopic organization of the higher motor centers in Octopus. Current Biology, 2009, 19(19), 1632–1636. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.07.067

Received 25 September 2011. Date of publication: 27 April 2012.

About author

Khvatov Ivan A. Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Department of General Psychology and History of Psychology, Moscow University for the Humanities, ul. Yunosti, 5/1, 111395 Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Suggested citation

Khvatov, I. A. Khvatov I.A. The main directions of evolution of the psyche in the context of ontological and differential-integrative approaches. Part 2. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2012, No. 2(22), p. 12. (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL:

Back to top >>