Yasnaya V.A., Enikolopov S.N. The current models of perfectionism

Full text in Russian: Ясная В.А., Ениколопов С.Н. Современные модели перфекционизма
Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia
Mental Health Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia

About authors
Suggested citation

The aim of the study is to analyze the current models of perfectionism and to reveal the structure of the phenomenon. Foreign and Russian models of perfectionism developed in the 1990–2000s are reviewed and briefly described, the advantages and shortcuts of this models are considered. The model based on R. Slaney “almost perfect model” that was tried and tested by the authors on Russian sample (N = 503) is discussed. This model includes characteristics of tolerance for ambiguity, time perspective and activity of individual.

Keywords: perfectionism, adaptive perfectionism, maladaptive perfectionism, model of perfectionism, tolerance for ambiguity, time perspective


The titles are given in author’s translation.

Belinskaya E.P. In: Transformation of identification structures in modern Russia. Moscow: MONF, 2001. pp. 30–54. (in Russian)

Bergman A.J., Nyland J.E., Burns L.R. Correlates with perfectionism and utility of a dual process model. Personality and Individual Differences, 2007, 43(2), 389–399.

Bieling P.J., Israeli A.L., Antony M.M. Is perfectionism good, bad, or both? Examining models of the perfectionism construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 2004, 36(6), 1373–1385.

Broman-Fulks J.J., Hill R.W., Green B.A. Is perfectionism categorical or dimensional? A taxometric analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 2008, 90(5), 481–490.

Cox B.J., Enns M.W., Clara I.P. The multidimensional structure of perfectionism in clinically distressed and college student samples. Psychological Assessment,2002, 14(3), 365–373.

Egan S.J., Piek J.P., Dyck M.J., Rees C.S. The role of dichotomous thinking and rigidity in perfectionism. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2007, 45(8), 1813−1822.

Egan S.J., Wade T.D., Shafran R. Perfectionism as a transdiagnostic process: A clinical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 2011, 31(2), 203–212.

Enikolopov S.N., Tsybulsky N.P. Psychometric analysis of Russian version of Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 2007, No. 1, 115–124. (in Russian)

Franche V., Gaudreau P., Miranda D. The 2x2 model of perfectionism: A comparison across Asian Canadians and European Canadians. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2012, 59(4), 567–574.

Frоst R.O., Heimbеrg R.G., Hоlt C.S., Mаttiа J.I. Nеubаuеr A.L. А comparison of two measures of perfeсtionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 1993, 14(1), 119–126.

Frost R.O., Marten P., Lahart C., Rosenblate R. The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1990, 14(5), 449–468.

Frost R.O., Turcotte T.A., Heimberg R.G., Mattia J.I., Holt C.S., Hope D.A. Reactions to mistakes among subjects high and low in perfectionistic concern over mistakes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1995, 19(2), 195–205.

Garanyan N.G. Psychological models of perfectionism. Voprosy psikhologii, 2009а, No. 5, 74–83. (in Russian)

Garanyan N.G. Typological approach to study of perfectionism. Voprosy psikhologii, 2009b, No. 6, 52–60. (in Russian)

Haase A.M., Prapavessis H. Assessing the factor structure and composition of the positive and negative perfectionism scale in sport. Personality and Individual Differences, 2004, 36(7), 1725–1740.

Hamachek D.E. Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 1978, 15(1), 27–33.

Hewitt P.L., Flett G.L. Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1991, 60(3), 456–470.

Hewitt P.L., Flett G.L., Sherry S.B., Habke M., Parkin M., Lam R.W., McMurtry B., Ediger E., Fairlie P., Stein M.B. The interpersonal expression of perfection: Perfectionistic self-presentation and psychological distress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2003, 84(6), 1303–1325.

Hill R.W., Huelsman T.J., Furr R.M., Kibler J., Vicente B.B., Kennedy C. A new measure of perfectionism: The Perfectionism Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 2004, 82(1), 80–91.

Horney K. The neurotic personality of our time. Мoscow: Progress, 1993. (in Russian)

Kohut H. The analysis of the Self: Systematic approach to therapy of narcissistic personality disorders. Moscow: Kogito-Tsentr, 2003. (in Russian)

Lombardi D.N., Florentino M.C., Lombardi A.J. Perfectionism and abnormal behavior. Journal of Individual Psychology, 1998, 54(1), 61–71.

McCreary B.T., Joiner T.E., Schmidt N.B., Ialongo N.S. The structure and correlates of perfectionism in African American children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 2004, 33(2), 313–324.

O’Connor R., Dixon D., Rasmussen S. The Structure and temporal stability of the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale. Psychological Assessment, 2009, 21(3), 437–443.

Paramonova V.V. Perfectionism in anxiety and depressive disorders. Extended abstract of PhD dissertation. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 2011. (in Russian)

Parker W.D. An empirical typology of perfectionism in academically talented children. American Educational Research Journal, 1997, 34(3), 545–562.

Purdon C., Antony M.M., Swinson R.P. Psychometric properties of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale in a clinical anxiety disorders sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1999, 55(10), 1271–1286.

Rheaume J., Freeston M.H., Ladouceur R., Bouchard C., Gallant L., Talbot F. et al. Functional and dysfunctional perfectionists: Are they different on compulsive-like behaviors? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2000, 38(2), 119–128.

Rice K.G., Preusser K.J. The Adaptive / Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development,2002(1), 34, 210–222.

Sedikides C., Luke M. On when self-enhancement and self-criticism function adaptively and maladaptively. In: E.C. Chang (Ed.) Self-criticism and self-enhancement: Theory, research, and clinical implications. Washington DC, 2007. pp. 181–198.

Shafran R., Cooper Z., Fairburn C.G. Clinical perfectionism: A cognitive-behavioral analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2002, 40(7), 773–791.

Shalaev N.V. In: Person in the situation of ambiguity. Moscow: TEIS, 2007. pp. 9–33. (in Russian)

Slade P.D., Owens R.G. A dual process model of perfectionism based on reinforcement theory. Behavior Modification, 1998, 22(3), 372–390.

Slaney R.B., Rice K.G., Ashby J.S. A programmatic approach to measuring perfectionism: the Almost Perfect Scales. In: G. Flett, P. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Washington DC, 2002. pp. 63–88.

Slaney R.B., Rice K.G., Mobley M., Trippi J., Ashby J.S. The revised Almost Perfect Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 2001, 34(3), 130–145.

Sokolova E.T. Narcissism as clinical and socio-cultural phenomenon. Voprosy psikhologii, 2009, No. 1, 67–80, (in Russian)

Sokolova E.T. Self-consciousness and self-esteem in personality disorders. Moscow: Mosk. gos. univ., 1989. (in Russian)

Sokolova E.T., Tsygankova P.V. Perfectionism and cognitive personality style in individuals attempted to suicide. Voprosy psikhologii, 2011, No. 2, 90−100. (in Russian)

Sorotzkin B. The quest for perfection: Avoiding guilt or avoiding shame? Psychotherapy, 1985, 22(3), 564–571.

Stőber J. The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale revisited: More perfect with four (instead of six) dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 1998, 24(4), 481–491.

Stoeber J., Otto K. Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2006, 10(4), 295–319.

Stumpf H., Parker W.D. A hierarchical structural analysis of perfectionism and its relation to other personality characteristics. Personality and Individual Differences, 2000, 28(5), 837–852.

Syrtsova А., Sokolova E.T., Mitina O.V. Adaptation of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 2008, 29(3), 101–109. (in Russian)

Terry-Short L.A., Owens R.G., Slade P.D., Dewey M.E. Positive and negative perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 1995, 18(5), 663–668.

Tsygankova P.V. Perfectionistic personality style in patients with adjustment disturbances and suicidal behavior. Extended abstract of PhD dissertation. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 2011. (in Russian)

Yasnaya V.A., Enikolopov S.N. Approbation of perfectionism measures in Russian sample. Psikhologicheskaya Diagnostika, 2009, No. 1, 101–120. (in Russian)

Yasnaya V.A., Enikolopov S.N. Perfectionism: Research history and state of the art. Voprosy Psikhologii, 2007, No. 7, 25–47. (in Russian)

Yasnaya V.A., Mitina O.V., Enikolopov S.N., Zurabova A.M. Approbation of R.Slaney’s Almost Perfect Scale perfectionism measure. Teoreticheskaya i eksperimental'naya psikhologiya, 2011, 4(4), 30–45. (in Russian)

Yasnaya V.A., Mitina O.V. In: Psychology of person’s self-development. Proceedings of the 3rd All-Russian Scientific Conference, 5–7 December, 2011. Kirov, 2011. Kirov: Vyat. gos. gumanitar. univ., 2011. pp. 39–43. (in Russian)

Yasnaya V., Mitina O. Time perspective and tolerance for ambiguity in perfectionists. Understanding and Embracing Diversity: The 12th European Congress of Psychology. Istanbul, 2011. p. 158.

Received 29 April 2013. Date of publication: 20 June 2013.

About authors

Yasnaya Vera A. Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Higher School of Economics (National Research University), Kochnovsky pr., 3, 125319 Moscow, Russia; Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Juridical Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, ul. Sretenka, 29, 127051 Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Enikolopov Sergey N. Ph.D., Associate Professor, Head, Department of Medical Psychology, Mental Health Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Kashirskoe shosse, 34, 115522 Moscow, Russia; Head, Department of Criminal Psychology, Faculty of Juridical Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, ul. Sretenka, 29, 127051 Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Suggested citation

Yasnaya V.A., Enikolopov S.N. The current models of perfectionism. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2013, Vol. 6, No. 29, p. 1. http://psystudy.ru (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL: http://psystudy.ru/index.php/eng/2013v6n29e/838-yasnaya29e.html

Back to top >>