Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

2018 Vol 11 Issue 62

Martsinkovskaya T.D. Psychological aspects of technological society


MARTSINKOVSKAYA T.D. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Russian version: Марцинковская Т.Д. Психологические аспекты технологического общества

L.S.Vygotsky Institute for Psychology, Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia
FGBNU "Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education", Moscow, Russia
Moscow State Regional University, Moscow, Russia

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The psychological content of transitivity and its phenomenology is analyzed. The problem of the world-image in a modern technological society is considered. It is shown that from the point of view of psychological parameters of the image of the world, it is possible to state significant civilizational changes, since the internalization of technology took place. Modern technical and informational space, first of all, the Internet, became one of the aspects of the content of the world-image and even the self-image. Modern ways of communication and movement significantly changed people's ideas about space and time, which had an important impact not only on the cognitive component of the image of the world, but also on emotional well-being and attitude to new technological achievements and new cultures. The data received in empirical studies of the influence of identity styles and ways of processing information on the attitude to new information technologies and tolerance to the new technological and information space are presented. It is shown that the information style of identity, along with a digital style of perceiving information, is one of the most important factors influencing the positive attitude to new technologies and the plurality of sociocultural contexts of the modern world. At the same time, the leading factor that determines tolerance to new technologies is the experience of working with them and a professional motivation. These factors do not depend on the age and style of identity. Acceptance of a new technological society is reflected in the content of a personal page in social networks, which in many respects is identical to the image of the world, helping to optimize relations with the world and other people.

Keywords: transitivity, informational socialization, technological society, technological and information space, tolerance to new technology, style of informational identity

 

Analysis of the challenges facing contemporary psychology shows that we can distinguish one, the main challenge as well as the problems associated with it. It seems that the main challenge and the main problem facing us is transitivity.

Challenges of transitivity

Social transitivity is characterized not only by the multiplicity, that is, the simultaneous existence of several variants of the social world in one temporal and spatial continuum, but also by a constant change of these variants in an unpredictable direction and with indefinite content [Martsinkovskaya, 2015a,b]. Thus, one can speak of transitivity as a multiplicity, variability and uncertainty of macro and micro social spaces. Multiplicity in this case is connected, first of all, with the expansion of the multicultural space of socialization. Globalization and mass migration processes increase cultural, linguistic, social multiplicity, which further enhances the volatility of apparently familiar surroundings. Objective difficulties and psychological stress lie not only and not so much in the multiplicity and uncertainty itself, but mainly in people’s attitude to them, people who expect new changes with serious anxiety. Multicultural environment causes not only tension, but also aggression, active and passive rejection of the new and not always understandable things [Yurevich, 2014]. Therefore tolerance to variability and uncertainty, as well as the need to understand the language and culture of other people, are one of the most important factors that reduce tension and, thus, the degree of complexity and difficulty of the situation of transitivity.

It can be stated that different aspects of transitivity are associated with various problems for a person. Thus, variability and uncertainty are associated with a destruction of identity’s wholeness and the temporal perspective [Belinskaya, Dubovskaya, 2009; Belinskaya, 2005]. Multiplicity makes it difficult to choose a group of identification and direction of socialization.

The new situation of transitivity is typical for all generations, although, of course, it becomes the most significant for young people and teenagers. At the same time, for young people transitivity is accepted as a natural situation in which the process of their growing up takes place. The disintegration of the times connection is manifested not only in the broken personal integrity, but, what is no less important, in the integrity of a society in which values and stereotypes have changed, and often even ethnic and geographical images of native places have transformed. Emotional instability of the mature generation is so deep that it also infects young people, especially those who for various reasons find it difficult to adapt in a situation of constant uncertainty.

Challenges-consequences of socio-psychological transitivity:

– Violation of the harmonious relationship between socialization and individualization

The connection between the desire for rootedness in the group (society) and, at the same time, the desire for personalization, is an important condition for personal growth and development. In the case of transitivity, difficulties are associated with increased anxiety and tension, resulting in the desire to "hide from difficulties", to find refuge in the group (whether large or small), an increase in conformity. Opposite dynamics is associated with the dominance of personalization, including conflicts with others (negativism) and/or downshifting.

– Changes in the intergenerational transmission.

According to the serious transformations and fluidity of norms, the age gap between generations decreases. At the same time, social, ecological, cultural and ethnic factors are increasingly influencing the process of formation of new generations and the temporary boundaries between age cohorts. Destruction of the intergenerational transmission between youth and elder generation also occurs due to the mismatch of information preferences.

– Changing of the role of the information space and depersonalization of information.

There is a big difference between information elections and trust in information in different age cohorts, especially in different regions. In large cities, this gap is particularly large, as young people choose the Internet as the leading source of information, which they trust more than TV. Adults and older people, on the other hand, choose television as the main source of information to which they trust. Difficulties with assurance to the information coming from different sources are also due to the fact that the increasing role of the media, their transformation into one of the institutions of "fluid" socialization leads to depersonalization and generalization of incoming information, which often is connected with emotional discomfort.

– Violation of the harmonious relationship between the flexibility-constancy of values.

In the situation of transitivity, people's ability to flexibly change their value orientations, correlating with new sociocultural realities, remaining, however, within certain value standards that are important to them, is violated (significantly reduced). We can say that in this case the main and the periphery of values are constantly changing, preventing people from either correctly understanding and assessing the changes that occur, or adapting to them.

The phenomenology of transitivity

Psychological analysis of the concept of "transitive society" allows us to identify the main features that determine its psychological content. We can state that such a society is characterized by the following phenomena:

– Cardinal social transformations,
– Globalization, which leads to the expansion of space, including the space of interpersonal contacts,
– Strengthening of social uncertainty, connected first of all with constant transformations of values, norms, standards in the modern, changing world,
– Increase in the duration of the process of socialization, activation of resocialization and fluid socialization,
– Expansion of the information space and strengthening of its role, partially replacing the intergenerational connections.

Globalization is one of the most important characteristics for psychology of transitivity, as its effect is the interaction between people of different cultures, which leads the need to develop tolerance for a multi-cultural environment. The manifestations of globalization affect not only the economy and politics, but all aspects of the interaction of different cultures – from the exchange of technologies and joint scientific developments, to mixed marriages. Modern technologies have a significant impact on people's perception of the surrounding space, which begins to be perceived as collapsed. The Earth represents as a small planet, the distances between different points on which are not as great as it once seemed. Not too long ago time and space seemed endless to people, life seemed eternal, the earth so huge that and it is impossible to get around it. Today people understand the transience and limited of life, and the simplicity of travelling. This gives another value to life, as well as the need to accept the fact of the existence of other people and other cultures. The increase in migration also leads to the need for interpersonal interaction among people belonging to different cultures, so it becomes extremely important to analyze the causes of people's dis-adaptation to new living conditions, refusal or passive rejection of that culture, those traditions that are significant for a new social environment.

At the same time, the interaction of people with different mentality, different languages, and different values leads to the need for comprehension on both the everyday and the scientific level of the relativity of our ideas about truth, about "what is good and what is bad". It becomes important to evaluate the same position from different points of view, in different approaches and different sciences.

The fluidity and variability of values and norms is the reason for the growing of anxiety as people find very difficult to adapt to the ever-changing "rules of the game." A consequence of this is the fact that the process of socialization takes place throughout the all life course. Therefore, at the present time it is said about the principle continuity of the process of socialization. In the context of this idea is the appearance of the term resocialization. At the same time, a modern multidimensional culture assumes a "liquid" socialization, in which a multifaceted and undirected impact is possible, and the result may be a delayed, latent [Bauman, 2002, 2008].

These changes result in revising the concepts of identity and socialization as well as development of a new methodology and new investigation methods [Martsinkovskaya, 2015b]. In situation of transitivity the person himself, his thoughts, his behavior become more, than usual, ambiguous. That is, a person has at the same time, a clear stable structure of motives, and their ever-changing structure in a system of changing relations. Therefore, the objectification of motives of human behavior in a situation of uncertainty cannot already correlate with an action, as a phenomenon of personality. So we need to find a new determination, first of all, cultural determination. It is in the context of a particular culture that one can judge both the causes, and the meaning of a particular act of a person, and its significance for the others.

As for the structure of identity in a transient, constantly changing world, it is necessary to emphasize that the problem of identity has always been actualized during periods of crisis, uncertainty, when comes out questions what norms, values, standards will be in demand tomorrow, how norms and rules of behavior will be transformed. These problems, turning into a personal, transcendental plan, focus on the main question – what will happen to a person, whether he will retain himself in the new conditions.

Transformation of the process of socialization leads to a change in the ratio of personal and social identity [Belinskaya, Dubovskaya, 2009]. It connects primarily with the fact that in a transitive society the balance of identities is an unstable characteristic that constantly shifts from one side to the other. Therefore, often, especially with a wide fan of identity group choices, dominates the personal not the social component of identity. The person gets the opportunity to form (create), based on his ideas about himself and corresponding to his individuality group, in which the social identity is almost equal to the personal one. Internet communication and network communities also stimulate the creation of new relationships between personal and social identities that are associated not only with real, but also virtual groups. Considering identity from this point of view, it can be stated that with the expansion of Internet communication, an area of imaginary and virtual identity is increasing. The role of self-monitoring, which gives a person an opportunity not only for self-categorization, but also for self-presentation, demonstration of both real and imaginary qualities, whose existence is proved not in real interaction but in a story about oneself, is growing substantially.

Therefore, in the current situation of communication, the phenomenon of narrative identity develops. Narrative identity is manifested in the fact that in interpersonal contacts the percentage of stories about oneself increases, rather than presenting oneself in action [Andreeva, 2012]. This fact is directly reflected in the game of identities – opportunities to try yourself in different masks, different roles, which often increases the awareness of roles and oneself. At the same time, network communities on the one hand provide the opportunity for flexible and positive socialization, on the other they help to find different variants of the "game" with its identity. In the found-created identity group (both real and, especially, virtual), self-assertion of fictitious (or appearing in the "game") personality characteristics occurs, and the traditional connection categorization – self-categorization is transformed into the connection between self-monitoring and self-confirmation.

An important point is the fact that in a situation of transitivity the integrity of identity is associated with culture, and not with the continuity of life cycles. This actualizes the concepts of linguistic and sociocultural identity. Enculturation, acceptance and appropriation of culture are one of the important factors determining the success of socialization in new conditions. Native culture and language remain unchanged in a changing world [Martsinkovskaya, 2015a]. Therefore, enculturation gives the rootedness and stability necessary in today's life, which many perceive as broken, uncertain. It is culture, emotionally perceived as a stable that allows finding the points of support in the changing reality and restoring the lost integrity of the self- and world-images. As for the role of language in the identity formation, in this case the concept of language is used in the broadest sense of the word and cannot be identified with speech. At the same time, the language form has not linguistic or philosophical, but psychological content, analogous to the modern narrative approach that regards a person as a text.

World image

The world image can be considered as the most general concept, the structure of which includes the picture of the world and the concept of the world. The content of ideas about the world is constantly transformed, as judgments about oneself, about space and time change. The combination of the image of the world and the picture of the world is possible both as a link between the conscious and unconscious parts of the picture of the world, and as a connection between images and judgments about oneself and the world. So in the picture of the world there are not only generalized schemes of reality, systems that reflect the interconnection of different worlds, groups, people, but also personalized strategies of behavior.

The question of the relationship between the objective and subjective, the individual in the picture of the world is extremely important, especially in the situation of variability and multiplicity of parameters that determine its content. Relationships, experiences help to establish the relationship between the objective and subjective, personal parameters of the world picture. In a situation where there is a constant change and construction of a picture of the world, the category of experience can be viewed not only as an emotional reaction, but also as a specific mechanism that unites personal and public, personal and individual identity in the process of actively designing the world picture.

Social transitivity actualizes the question of the correlation of different aspects of the picture of the world. Even a superficial analysis makes it possible to see some of the cardinal changes that are most characteristic of today. A new era, in particular, is characterized by traits such as globalization, serious ethnic and religious conflicts, the perceptions of human activity in the construction of the world, the pronounced state of uncertainty in the understanding of the goals and the directions of society development. The volatility of the world and its picture in the minds of people of different mentality, education and social affiliation changes the idea of interpersonal and intergroup relations, complicating or, on the contrary, simplifying contacts with people of foreign culture. New means of transportation and communication also affect the changes in the world picture.

Increasing the migration leads to the need for interpersonal interaction among people belonging to different cultures, so it becomes extremely important to analyze the causes of people’s disadaptation to new living conditions, disregard or passive rejection of that culture, those traditions that are significant for a new social environment. The interaction of people with different mentality, different languages and different values leads to the necessity of comprehending on both the everyday and the scientific level the relativity of our ideas about truth, about what is good and what is bad. It is important to evaluate the same position from different points of view, in different approaches and by different people.

Virtual space of transitive society

When we discuss psychology of digital society, it is necessary to analyze challenges facing modern science. It is assumed as it was showed before, that transitivity has become the main challenge. Basic transitivity characteristics are: multiplicity of socio-cultural contexts, variability and uncertainty of surrounding world. We note that different aspects of transitivity are related to various problems of a human. Thus variability and uncertainty violate identity’s integrity, its separate components and time perspective. Multiplicity makes difficult to choose an identification group and socialization space. In this case we have to reconsider concepts of identity and socialization keeping in mind that these processes take place in real life and in virtual space as well.

Today we can observe civilization changes in addition to social ones, which are caused by appearance of new digital devices and technologies. New technologies became essential part of human life and its influence upon modern people becomes bigger and more profound [Martsinkovskaya, 2015b]. We enter a new epoch of digital society where digital devices are not something external for a human. We consider them not as mechanisms or as tool only, but as a part of our environment and continuation of our mental abilities. We may state that digital devices interiorize human beings defining their perception of the world, interaction with objects and communication with each other. Modern means of communication and transportation transformed space-time continuum and our perception of it. Indeed we are not able to predict consequences of one’s speech which can affect something on another continent and in another language.

At the same time discovery of new self-development possibilities, revelations of new options for real and virtual communications, individualization and socialization, get more prominent in transitivity context. Technologies and means of digital information mediate self-presentation and communications in a new social situation. They create new forms of behavior and communication, dictate new value system determining context of teenagers’ socialization [Golubeva, Martsinkovskaya, 2011; Astrid et al., 2006]. Communication experience is altering (new forms of communication appear). New means of getting new information develop (different ways of information presentation), new opportunities of self-presentation appear (blogs, online diaries, social networks), as well as new ways of professionalization (internet communities).

Informational socialisation in transitive world

The problem of information socialization in recent years became one of the most important [Castells, 2000], as the younger generation lives in a fundamentally new social and information space, in which the words "information culture" are not abstract concepts, but existing reality. At the same time, it should be noted that information socialization and information space for psychology, in contrast to cultural studies and sociology, are mainly "terra incognito", as psychological researches focuses mainly on the problems of Internet communications and Internet addiction. However, it is quite obvious that the information space is wider than the Internet communication space. It was showed that the relation to information, to different information fields (sources), including the Internet, is connected with a variety of psychological factors. Among these problems, of course, are questions related to the fan of possible identities manifested in various forms of communication and interaction, as well as problems related to new variants of the transformation of ideals, norms and values ​​in the intergroup and intergenerational transmission, and the questions associated with communication and interaction of people of different cultures in the current situation of transitivity [Andreeva, Dontsov, 2002; Khuzeeva, 2016].

Social transitivity is characterized not only by the multiplicity, that is, the simultaneous existence of several variants of the social world in one temporal and spatial continuum, but also by a constant changes of these variants in an unpredictable direction and with indefinite content. Multiplicity in this case is connected, first of all, with the expansion of the multicultural space of socialization. Globalization and mass migration processes increase cultural, linguistic, social multiplicity, which further enhances the volatility of seemingly familiar surroundings.

Objective complexities and psychological stress are connected not only and not so much with the multiplicity and uncertainty itself, but mainly with the attitude to them, as people are afraid and anxious about ever greater changes. Therefore tolerance to variability and uncertainty, as well as the need to understand the language and culture of other people, are the most important factors that reduce tension and, thus, the degree of complexity and difficulty of the situation of transitivity.

Information is one of the ways to organize, structure the image of the world, which imposes a special responsibility on the media and the ways it is submitted to respondents, especially adolescents and young people. It has been repeatedly emphasized [Bauman, 2008,Martsinkovskaya, 2015a] that the "information dimension" of the content of socialization is of particular relevance for adolescence. Actualizes the problem of information socialization and the fact that information helps an adequate positioning in a constantly changing, uncertain complex system, which is the current reality.

Therefore, one of the leading now days research topics is the study of the process of perception and processing of information in different social and age groups. From M.Berzonski's point of view, cognitive-style specificity can become one of the bases of identity formation in information socialization [Berzonsky, 2008]. In his opinion, the attitude to information, the ability to process this information, determines the formation of a certain identity – information, normative and diffuse. Thus, we can assume that the process of information socialization is determined not by several separate factors, but by an integrated complex of individual and personal traits.

At present, it is possible to state civilizational, not only social changes. This fact is connected with the appearance of not just new equipment, but a new technology, a new technological space [Martsinkovskaya, 2015b]. New technologies have become an integral part of the lives of modern people, and their impact is becoming ever larger and more comprehensive. We are entering in a principally changed era, perhaps in a new civilization era, when the technological society has already passed into the next stage, in which technology is not something external to man. A person perceives machines not as much as mechanisms, but as part of our environment, often as a continuation of our psychic abilities, and not just as tools of labor. We can, apparently, say that technic is internalized by people, determining the specifics of their perception of the world, interaction with objects, and communication with others. Modern means of communication and movement have transformed both the space-time continuum and our idea of it. We, indeed, are no longer able to predict the results of the action, since it often responds in completely different dimensions, in another part of the world, in another language.

Changes in the world-image are manifested, first of all, in new ideas about space and time, that is, the person's opportunities to get to different points of the globe and the duration (eternity) of his life path. The speed of movement made the boundless space of the past a memory. On the other hand, the understanding that life ends today and one must live "here and now" has made time limited, in comparison with the understanding of the eternal life of the past. New means of transportation and communication, as well as new ideas about life and death, determine the essential transformations in these representations. This gives another value to life, and also creates the need to accept the existence of other people and other cultures, which leads psychology to interdisciplinary in creating scientific concepts.

The development of new information technologies, modifying the whole way of life of a modern person, naturally has its own personal consequences. Actually, it is this question – how not only the nature of communication changes, but also the personal characteristics of the people of the information era – practically from the very beginning was in the center of attention of psychologists. And among all possible personal transformations, priority was given to the dynamics of identification structures.

The transformations of the psychological phenomenology and psychological regularities about the world and the attitude towards a new reality that occur in a modern technological society pose new goals to psychology. These new tasks are connected with investigation of the factors that determine the acceptance / rejection by people new technologies and a new socio-cultural space.

It determined the purpose of this study, which examined the impact of the specifics of processing information on the content of the world-image and tolerance to the new technological space.

Self-presentation in real and virtual communication

Self-presentation aim is to create and demonstrate a desired image of oneself. Another significant task of self-presentation is to maintain positive self-esteem. Numerous studies show that self-presentation can be determined by motivational and cognitive factors. Scientists refer below factors to motivational ones: desire for power and high achievements, level of self-monitoring, need for social recognition. Cognitive factors, which are partially connected with self-consciousnesses degree, are determined by intentional and behavioral efforts. These efforts are focused to eliminate the dissonance between self-esteem and social assessment.

If we compare self-presentation characteristics in real and virtual life, we shall notice that self-presentation in social networks is more conscious and diverse. Its content depends on social norms of a specific social network. The most interesting fact is that virtual communication helps to increase self-esteem more effectively than non-virtual does. It also helps to activate communications between the users.

Participants

The survey involved 200 respondents, whom we divided into two age groups: 100 respondents from 18 to 25 years and 100 people from 30 to 45 years.

Identification of the style of identity and the leading channel of information processing was carried out both in the real and in the virtual space of the Internet. During examining tolerance towards new technologies and technological space, both groups were divided into people who worked with new technologies (1A, 2A, n – 50) and those who don’t have enough experience of such work (1B, 2B, n – 50).

The study was conducted in 2017–2018. All the participants gave their consent to participate in the study.

Research Methods

The questionnaire “The leading information processing channel” [Martsinkovskaya, 2017];

The questionnaire “Berzonsky’s identity style” [Martsinkovskaya, 2017];

The questionnaire “Attitude to new information technologies” [Martsinkovskaya, 2017].

Results

Data, obtained in analyze of the identity styles in the whole for the sample, showed that the most numerous group was a sub-selection of people with a normative identity style, and the smallest was a sub-selection with an information style of identity. At the same time, the identity style in reality and virtuality did not always coincide: in virtuality, groups with a diffuse identity style turned out to be larger in number than in reality, and with normative – less (differences are significant at the level of 0.05). Respondents with an information identity style preserved it in both real and virtual space. In other words, the respondents, who have normative style of identity, became less normative when they "moved" to the virtual space, and the diffuse "strengthened" their identity style.

Thus, the virtual environment and the possibilities of network communication have different effects on respondents with different identity styles. Users with an information identity style acquire in virtuality additional space to strengthen their identity. For them, virtuality and reality create, in fact, an entire communication space. On users with a normative style of identity, the features of the virtual space influence stronger than on others. They tend to rely on social norms in reality, but in virtuality they often do not find the usual support points and tend to negatively assess themselves. For users with a diffuse identity style, the virtual environment is not a source of additional self-design and, rather, enhances their propensity for situational decision-making.

On the next stage of the work were determined the leading channels for processing information (table 1).

Table 1
The leading channels for processing information

Participants Channels for processing information
Audial
%
Visual
%
Kinesthetic
%
Digital
%
Group I 21  46 3 28
Group II 32  52 4 12


The obtained results showed a more pronounced tendency toward a digital style of perception and processing of information in younger respondents. At the same time, in both groups, the visual method was dominant, which reflects the real situation for the majority of the population of all ages. An important point was that the leading channel of perception of information did not change during working with information in real space and in the Internet.

Comparison of the results of the first and second series of the study showed that there is a direct relationship between the style of identity and the characteristics of perception and processing of information. The obtained results indicate a statistically significant relationship between the information style of identity and the leading digital style of perception and processing of information r = 0.532; p <0.001.

The results, showed in the study about tolerance to new information technologies showed that in the groups, who connected with new technologies (1A, 2A) 96% of respondents in spite of the age demonstrated positive attitude to new informational space. Respondents from the groups B showed less level of tolerance to new technologies and there were some differences in the answers according to the age – 1B – 63% of tolerance and 2B – 54% of tolerance.

More informational were answers about attitude to various characteristics of the technological space (table 2).

Table 2
Tolerance to various characteristics of the technological space

Participants Characteristics of the technological space
Internet
%
 Medical techniques
%
Communication and movement
%
Robots
%
Group I A 89 66 89 43
Group I B 88 52 88 21
Group II A 62  82 67 40
Group II B 39 81 51 7


We can see that young respondents actually identify communication and information with the Internet. The overwhelming majority positively assess these elements of the technological space. In the group B there is a division of communication and the Internet, the attitude to which, especially among people who have little to do with the Internet, is ambivalent, often even negative. On the contrary, the achievements of medicine are more positively assessed by adults, perhaps due to the fact that they begin to think about future treatment. It is interesting that all respondents, even those who deal with automated types of production, are little tolerant to robotics. The negative assessments are mainly connected with moral aspects, but practically there were no answers in which was purely technical assessments (for example – facilitate the work) or fears about the possibility of losing a job. Thus, it can be said that the general idea of a technological society is coherent in most people with ideas about the Internet, while an understanding of the complex multidimensional reality associated with the development of technologies is realized by a small number of people, mainly those who are professionally associated with it.

Conclusions

Social networks are one of the most important parts of the world-image. One can say that it is social networks that currently form the individual, subjective space of modern people, which begins to dominate the overall picture of the world.

The information styles of identity, as well as the dominance of the digital way of working with information, are more typical for young people. At the same time, this fact does not reflect either the harmony of the world-image or the tolerance to the new technological space. The presence in the world-image of parameters associated with new technologies, as well as the desire to use various technological innovations in work and life, are determined not so much by the age or methods of perception of the material as by professional motivation and the sphere of professional activity.

The information style of identity reflects the person's attitude to the information stream, his ability and readiness to navigate in a variety of information, which in turn is expressed in a high level of information awareness. This is what allows creating a multidimensional model of the perceived image, highlighting in it a set of interrelated aspects. This helps to better navigation in the changing reality, increases tolerance to the new technological, digital space. At the same time, the main factor determining tolerance to new technologies remains the experience of working with them, which is reflected in the world-image of people, regardless of age, style of identity and way of working with information.


Funding
The study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 16-06-00161 «Exogenous and endogenous factors of informational socialization».


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Received 15 October 2018. Date of publication: 15 December 2018.

About author

Martsinkovskaya Tatyana D. Ph.D., Professor, L.S.Vygotsky Institute for Psychology, Russian State University for the Humanities, Miusskaya pl., 6, 125993 Moscow, Russia; FGBNU "Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education", ul. Mokhovaya, 9–4, 125009 Moscow, Russia; Federal Institute of Development of Education, ul. Chernyakhovskogo, 9–1, 125319 Moscow, Russia.
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ORCID ID: 0000-0003-2810-2554

Suggested citation

Martsinkovskaya T.D. Psychological aspects of technological society. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2018, Vol. 11, No. 62, p. 12. http://psystudy.ru (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL: http://psystudy.ru/index.php/eng/2018v11n62e/1666-martsinkovskaya62e.html

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