Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal


2020 Vol. 13 Issue 74

Vilkova K.A., Lebedeva N.V. Gender differences in academic motivation: evidence from the longitudinal study of university student

Full text in Russian: Вилкова К.А., Лебедева Н.В. Динамика академической мотивации в университете: есть ли гендерные различия?

National Research University «Higher School of Economics», Moscow, Russia
Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

About author
Suggested citation

An individual's motivational beliefs shape the choice of both educational and career paths. At the same time, previous studies indicated that men and women differ in academic motivation. However, the research to date has focused on cross-sectional design, rather than on longitudinal studies on gender differences in academic motivation. Our research aimed to examine gender differences in academic motivation employing the self-determination theory within longitudinal design. Students of a Russian research university participated in the study (N=316, 63% females). Participants were examined at the beginning of their study and before the graduation. According to the results, there was no significant effect of gender on intrinsic motivation during the first and fourth years of the university. However, women reported higher level of extrinsic motivation compared to men in both the first and fourth years of study. Specifically, the gender difference in introjected motivation was shown to be significant during the first and fourth years of study. At the same time, gender differences in external motivation were significant in the first year, but non-significant at the end of the study. To conclude, women tend to attain an outcome that is separable from learning itself. These results suggest that women involved in learning activities to comply with internal pressure from parents, teachers and society.

Keywords: academic motivation, self-determination theory, gender differences, longitudinal design

Full text in Russian >>


Cyrillic letters are transliterated according to BSI standards. The titles are given in author’s translation.

Bern Sh. Gendernaya psikhologiya. St. Petersburg: Neva, 2001. (in Russian)

Bloom B.L. A factor analysis of selfreport measures of family functioning. Family Process, 1985, 2(24), 225–239. (in Russian)

Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988.

Conti R. College goals: Do self-determined and carefully considered goals predict intrinsic motivation, academic performance, and adjustment during the first semester? Social Psychology of Education, 2000, 2(4), 189–211.

Deary I.J., Strand S., Smith P., Fernandes C. Intelligence and educational achievement. Intelligence, 2007, 1(35), 13–21.

Deci E.L., Flaste R. Why we do what we do: Understanding self-motivation. New York: Penguins Books, 1995.

Deci E.L., Ryan R.M. Self-determination theory, New York: Routledge Publishers, 2012.

Deci E.L., Ryan R.M. Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology, 2008, 3(49), 182–185.

Deci E.L., Ryan R.M. Self-determination. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2010, 1–2.

Duckworth A.L., Seligman M.E. Self-discipline gives girls the edge: Gender in self-discipline, grades, and achievement test scores. Journal of Educational Psychology, 2006, 1(98), 198–208.

Eccles J.S., Wigfield A. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 2002, 1(53), 109–132.

Eccles J.S., Wigfield A. Schooling's influences on motivation and achievement. Securing the Future: Investing in Children from Birth to College, 2000, 153–181.

Farmer H.S. A multivariate model for explaining gender differences in career and achievement motivation. Educational Researcher, 1987, 2(16), 5–9.

Fontecha A.F., Alonso A.C. A preliminary study on motivation and gender in CLIL and non-CLIL types of instruction. International Journal of English Studies, 2014, 1(14), 21–36.

Frome P.M., Alfeld C.J., Eccles J.S., Barber B.L. Why don't they want a male-dominated job? An investigation of young women who changed their occupational aspirations. Educational Research and Evaluation, 2006, 4(12), 359–372.

Gordeeva T.O. Bazovye tipy motivatsii deyatel'nosti: potrebnostnaya model'. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 14. Psikhologiya, 2014, No 3. (in Russian)

Gordeeva T.O. Motivatsiya: novye podkhody, diagnostika, prakticheskie rekomendatsii. Sibirskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 2016, No 62. (in Russian)

Gordeeva T.O. Psikhologiya motivatsii dostizheniya. M.: Smysl, 2006. (in Russian)

Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Osin E.N. Oprosnik «Shkaly akademicheskoi motivatsii». Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 2014, 4(35), 96–107. (in Russian)

Hellgren J.M., Lindberg S. Motivating students with authentic science experiences: changes in motivation for school science. Research in Science & Technological Education, 2017, 4(35), 409–426.

Il'in E.P. Motivatsiya i motivy. St. Petersburg: Piter, 2013.

Khekkhauzen Kh. Motivatsiya i deyatel'nost'. 2-e izdanie. St. Petersburg: Piter, 2003. (in Russian)

Kovalev G.A. O sisteme psikhologicheskogo vozdeistviya. Psikhologiya vozdeistviya (problemy teorii i praktiki). M.: APN SSSR, 1989, 4–43. (in Russian)

Landau E. Odarennost' trebuet muzhestva: Psikhologicheskoe soprovozhdenie odarennogo rebenka. M.: Akademiya, 2002. (in Russian)

Leaper C., Farkas T., Brown C.S. Adolescent girls’ experiences and gender-related beliefs in relation to their motivation in math/science and English. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2012, 3(41), 268–282.

Lee J. Effects of leadership and leader‐member exchange on commitment. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 2005, 655–672.

Matusovich H., Streveler R., Loshbaugh H., Miller R., Olds B. Will I succeed in engineering? Using expectancy-value theory in a longitudinal investigation of students’ beliefs. Proceedings American Society of Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition, 2008, 289–303.

Rakes G.C., Dunn K.E. The Impact of Online Graduate Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation on Academic Procrastination, Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 2010, 1(9), 78–93.

Richardson M., Abraham C., Bond R. Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 2012, 2(138), 353–365.

Ryckman D.B., Peckham P.D. Gender differences on attribution patterns in academic areas for learning disabled students. Learning Disabilities Research, 1986, 83–89.

Shadrikov V.D. Sistemogenez deyatel'nosti. Igra. Uchenie. Trud: Vol. 1. Sistemogenez professional'noi i uchebnoi deyatel'nosti. M.: RAO, 2017. (in Russian)

Smith J.L., Lewis K.L., Hawthorne L., Hodges S.D. When trying hard isn’t natural: Women’s belonging with and motivation for male-dominated STEM fields as a function of effort expenditure concerns. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2013, 2(39), 131–143.

Stetsenko A., Little T.D., Gordeeva T., Grasshof M., Oettingen G. Gender effects in children's beliefs about school performance: A cross‐cultural study. Child Development, 2000, 2(71), 517–527.

Ushakov D.V. Psikhologiya odarennosti i problema subekta. Problema subekta v psikhologicheskoi nauke, 2000, 212–215. (in Russian)

Vallerand R.J. et al. The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1992, 4(52), 1003–1017.

Wang X. Why students choose STEM majors: Motivation, high school learning, and postsecondary context of support. American Educational Research Journal, 2013, 5(50), 1081–1121.

Wolters C.A. Understanding procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Journal of educational psychology, 2003, 1(95), 179–185.

Received 15 April 2020. Date of publication: 31 December 2020.

About author

Vilkova Kseniia A. Junior Research Fellow and PhD Student, Centre of Sociology of Higher Education, Institute of Education, National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Potapovsky per., 16/10, 101100 Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Lebedeva Nataliya V. Research Fellow, Kazan Federal University, Institute of Psychology and Education, ul. Mezhlauk, 1, 420021 Kazan, Russia. PhD student of Psychology, National Research University Higher School of Economics, ul. Myasnitskaya, 20, 101000 Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Suggested citation

Vilkova K.A., Lebedeva N.V. Gender differences in academic motivation: evidence from the longitudinal study of university student. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2020, Vol. 13, No. 74, p. 1. (in Russian, abstr. in English)

Permanent URL:

Back to top >>

Related Articles